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Model and incentivize inclusive leadership

Taken from sections in NCWIT presentation materials. See also Block, C. J., & Noumair, D. A. (2017). “Understanding Diversity Dynamics in Systems: Social Equality as an Organization Change Issue.” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 53(2), 150–155. See also Dobbin, F., & Kalev, A. (2018). “Why doesn't diversity training work? The challenge for industry and academia.” Anthropology Now, 10(2), 48-55.

Scott, A., Klein, F. K., & Onovakpuri, U. (2017). Tech leavers study: A first of its kind analysis of why people voluntarily left jobs in tech.”  Kapor Center for Social Impact. https://mk0kaporcenter5ld71a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/TechLeavers2017.pdf. See also National Center for Women and Information Technology (2016). “Women in IT: The Facts Infographic.” https://ncwit.org/women-in-it-the-facts-infographic-2016-update.

The Google Career Certificates Employer Consortium consists of over 130 U.S. companies like Better.com, Deloitte, Infosys, Snap Inc., Target, Verizon, and Google. See Google Career Certificates at https://grow.google/certificates/#?modal_active=none and Chelsea Rucker’s story in this 3 minute video at https://grow.google/certificates/#?modal_active=modal-7qTxcaEcz-g.

See, for example: OECD Gender Data and Analyses. https://www.oecd.org/gender; McKinsey & Company and LeanIn.org (2021). “Women in the Workplace Report.” https://wiw-report.s3.amazonaws.com/Women_in_the_Workplace_2020.pdf; World Economic Forum (2021, March). “WEF Global Gender Gap Report 2021.” https://www.weforum.org/reports/global-gender-gap-report-2021. See also Alvarado, L.A. (2010). “Dispelling the Meritocracy Myth: Lessons for Higher Education and Student Affairs Educators. Vermont Connection (31), 10-20.” https://www.uvm.edu/~vtconn/v31/Alvarado.pdf.

Fisher, D. R. (2020). “The diversity of the recent Black Lives Matter protests is a good sign for racial equity.” Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2020/07/08/the-diversity-of-the-recent-black-lives-matter-protests-is-a-good-sign-for-racial-equity

Ely, Robin J.  and Thomas, David A. (November - December 2020).  “Getting Serious About Diversity,” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/11/getting-serious-about-diversity-enough-already-with-the-business-case

Kennedy, J. T. and Jain-Link, P. (June 2021). “What does it take to build a culture of belonging?” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2021/06/what-does-it-take-to-build-a-culture-of-belonging.

Othering & Belonging Institute, University of California Berkeley. https://belonging.berkeley.edu.

Kim, D. H. (1999). Introduction to systems thinking (Vol. 16). Waltham, MA: Pegasus Communications. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/535849dae4b0f67f52ae0568/t/5e42d6fbecf987525cb25dfc/1581438716299/Introduction+to+Systems+Thinking.pdf.

Bobb, K. (2018). “Systemic Investments in Equity, Talent, and Tech: Findings from a CECP Accelerate Community.” CECP. http://cecp.co/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/cecp_equity-talent_2018_FINAL.pdf?redirect=no

McKinsey & Company and LeanIn.org (2021). “Women in the Workplace Report.” https://womenintheworkplace.com.

Qian, Y., & Yavorsky, J. E. (2021). “The Under-Utilization of Women’s Talent: Academic Achievement and Future Leadership Positions.” Social Forces, 1, 35. For a short summary, see: The University of British Columbia (2021). “Women with straight As in High School Have Same Leadership Prospects as Men with Failing Grades.” https://news.ubc.ca/2021/02/03/good-grades-and-leadership

Theuer, C. (2020). “Does Merit Matter in America?” The Tech. https://thetech.com/2020/02/20/legacy-privilege. See also Jaschik, S. (2021, March). “Do Top Colleges Favor Applicants Who Are Extremely Wealthy?” Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/admissions/article/2021/03/22/do-top-colleges-favor-applicants-who-are-extremely-wealthy

In this report we generally use the term “level playing field” as we recognize the inherent tension between ‘meritocracy’ and equity, as outlined in Markovits, D. (2019).The Meritocracy Trap, Penguin Press. For a short explanation, see Markovits, D. (2020)  “How Meritocracy Worsens Inequality,” Yale Insights. https://insights.som.yale.edu/insights/how-meritocracy-worsens-inequality-and-makes-even-the-rich-miserable

Qureshi, Z. (2020). “Tackling the Inequality Pandemic: Is There A Cure?” Reimagining the global economy: Building back better in a post-COVID-19 world. Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/research/tackling-the-inequality-pandemic-is-there-a-cure.

The National Forum on Early Childhood Policy and Programs has found that high quality early childhood programs can yield a $4 – $9 dollar return per $1 invested. https://developingchild.harvard.edu/science/related-activities. For more on the benefits of early childhood education, see: van Huizen, T., & Plantenga, J. (2018). “Do children benefit from universal early childhood education and care? A meta-analysis of evidence from natural experiments.” Economics of Education Review, 66, 206–222; Center for High Impact Philanthropy (2015). “Investing in Kids Can Yield High Returns: Q&A with Dr. Lynn A. Karoly.” University of Pennsylvania. https://www.impact.upenn.edu/investing-in-kids-can-yield-high-returns-qa-with-dr-lynn-a-karoly. See Center on the Developing Child (2007). Early Childhood Program Effectiveness (InBrief). www.developingchild.harvard.edu

Friedman-Krauss, A., et al. (2020) “The State of Pre-school 2019.” Rutgers Graduate School of Education. https://nieer.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/YB2019_Executive_Summary.pdf

van Huizen, T., & Plantenga, J. (2018). “Do children benefit from universal early childhood education and care? A meta-analysis of evidence from natural experiments.” Economics of Education Review, 66, 206–222; Center for High Impact Philanthropy (2015). “Investing in Kids Can Yield High Returns: Q&A with Dr. Lynn A. Karoly.” University of Pennsylvania. https://www.impact.upenn.edu/investing-in-kids-can-yield-high-returns-qa-with-dr-lynn-a-karoly/.  See also Center on the Developing Child (2007). Early Childhood Program Effectiveness (InBrief). www.developingchild.harvard.edu.

Bobb, K. (2018). “Systemic Investments In Equity, Talent, and Tech: Findings from a CECP Accelerate Community.” CECP. http://cecp.co/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/cecp_equity-talent_2018_FINAL.pdf?redirect=no.

ACLU (2020). “School-to-prison-pipeline.” [infographic] https://www.aclu.org/issues/juvenile-justice/school-prison-pipeline/school-prison-pipeline-infographic.

Atlanta Public School Insights. (2020). https://apsinsights.org/2020/01/17/2019-milestones-results-by-subgroup/. Data from Georgia Governor's Office of Student Achievement. https://gosa.georgia.gov/dashboards-data-report-card/downloadable-data.

It is important to note, however, that income inequality does not supplant racism as an explanation for racial disparities. Data shows, for example, that “Black boys raised in America, even in the wealthiest families and living in some of the most well-to-do neighborhoods, still earn less in adulthood than white boys with similar backgrounds;” as reported by The New York Times. See Badger, E., Miller, C. C., Pearce, A. & Quealy, K. (2018). “Extensive Data Shows Punishing Reach of Racism for Black Boys.” The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/03/19/upshot/race-class-white-and-black-men.html 

For further information email CSforED@csforall.org or see Delyser, L. A., Goode, J., Guzdial, M., Kafai, Y., & Yadav, A. (2018). Priming the computer science teacher pump: Integrating computer science education into schools of education. CSforAll. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1DXgpLjl_k87TVpQ0cLusfdjnYySIgIjT/view.

Goodman, M. (n.d.). Systems thinking: What, why, when, where, and how. The Systems Thinker. https://thesystemsthinker.com/systems-thinking-what-why-when-where-and-how; see also Kim, D. (1999). Introduction to systems thinking (Vol. 16). Waltham, MA: Pegasus Communications. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/535849dae4b0f67f52ae0568/t/5e42d6fbecf987525cb25dfc/1581438716299/Introduction+to+Systems+Thinking.pdf

Derrick, L. (2019).  “5 Advantages of Systems Thinking and How to Make Full Use of It.” Toggl Plan Blog. https://toggl.com/blog/5-advantages-of-systems-thinking.

Kim, D. (1999). “Introduction to Systems Thinking.” Pegasus Communications, Inc. https://thesystemsthinker.com/introduction-to-systems-thinking

“Systems Practice” - Acumen Academy, supported by Omidyar Group. https://acumenacademy.org/course/systems-practice.

See, e.g., ​​Cruz, A. (2018, October). “The problematic history of the word ‘Hispanic.’” TeenVogue [Op Ed for Latinx Heritage Month]. https://www.teenvogue.com/story/problematic-history-of-hispanic-word.

Noe-Bustamante, L., Mora, L., & Lopez, M. H. (2020). “About One-in-Four U.S. Hispanics Have Heard of Latinx, but Just 3% Use It.” Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2020/08/11/about-one-in-four-u-s-hispanics-have-heard-of-latinx-but-just-3-use-it.

Ashcraft, C., McLain, B., & Eger, E. (2016). “Women in Tech: The Facts.” National Center for Women & Technology (NCWIT). https://ncwit.org/resource/thefacts; Scott, A., et al. (2018). “The Leaky Tech Pipeline: A Comprehensive Framework for Understanding and Addressing the Lack of Diversity across the Tech Ecosystem.” Kapor Center for Social Impact. https://mk0kaporcenter5ld71a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/KC18001_report_v6-1.pdf

Chang, E. (2019). Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys’ Club of Silicon Valley. Portfolio/Penguin. 

Riggins, J. (2021, January). “Why Tech is Still Toxic for Women and What to Do About It.” TheNewStack. https://thenewstack.io/why-tech-is-still-toxic-for-women-and-what-to-do-about-it.

Hong, Y., Mack, M., & Pao, E. (2021, March). “Remote Work Since COVID-19 is Exacerbating Harm: What Companies Need to Know.” Project Include. https://projectinclude.org/assets/pdf/Project_Include_Harassment_Report_0321_R8.pdf.

Basford, T., Schaninger, B. (April 11, 2016). “The Four Building Blocks of Change.” McKinsey Quarterly. https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/organization/our-insights/the-four-building-blocks--of-change.

See Ashcraft, C., McLain, B., & Eger, E. (2016). “Women in Tech: The Facts.” National Center for Women & Technology (NCWIT). https://ncwit.org/resource/thefacts

Bourke, J., & Titus, A. (2020). “The Key to Inclusive Leadership.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/03/the-key-to-inclusive-leadership?registration=success.

See also Paradigm Strategy Inc. (n.d.). “Inclusive Leadership: Unlocking the power of diversity through inclusion.” https://info.paradigmiq.com/hubfs/Inclusive%20Leadership_Paradigm%20White%20Paper.pdf.

For a full explanation of NCWIT’s Inclusive Culture Construction framework, along with its research basis, see ncwit.org/iccframework.

See, for example Harvard Business Review collection. https://hbr.org/2020/06/confronting-racism-at-work-a-reading-list; and Harvard Business School Racial Justice Reading List. https://www.hbs.edu/about/campus-and-culture/standing-together/Pages/racial-justice-reading-list.aspx

5 Ally Actions Newsletter. https://betterallies.com/more-content.

Ishmael, S. (2021, July 27) Race Ahead Newsletter. Fortune. https://fortune.com/newsletter/raceahead

Created by the DEI strategists and consultants at Paradigm. www.paradigmiq.com.

Paradigm. “Building Effective Allyship is Critical:  Here’s How You Can Start.”  https://www.paradigmiq.com/2020/05/29/building-effective-allyship-skills-is-critical-heres-how-you-can-start.

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. Random House.; Dweck, C. (2016). “What Having a ‘Growth Mindset’ Actually Means.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2016/01/what-having-a-growth-mindset-actually-means#

Gerdeman, D. (2021, May 10). “Who has potential? For many white men, it’s often other white men.” Working Knowledge (Harvard Business School). https://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/who-has-potential-for-white-men-its-usually-other-white-men.

HBR Editors. (2014). “How Companies Can Profit from a ‘Growth Mindset.’” Harvard Business Review.  https://hbr.org/2014/11/how-companies-can-profit-from-a-growth-mindset

Carr, P. B., Dweck, C. S., & Pauker, K. (2012, June 18). “‘Prejudiced’ Behavior Without Prejudice? Beliefs About the Malleability of Prejudice Affect Interracial Interactions.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. http://manoa.hawaii.edu/isplab/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Carr-Dweck-Pauker-2012_JPSP.pdf.

Sue, D. W. “Microaggression: More Than Just Race.” https://www.uua.org/files/pdf/m/microaggressions_by_derald_wing_sue_ph.d._.pdf

See Native Governance Center https://nativegov.org/a-guide-to-indigenous-land-acknowledgment and https://native-land.ca/resources/territory-acknowledgement/, and also “Acknowledging Traditional Custodians,” from the University of Virginia https://kluge-ruhe.org/about/acknowledging-indigenous-owners

See https://ncwit.org/blog/building-more-inclusive-cultures-at-work-while-were-at-home.

See https://public.tableau.com/app/profile/anitab/viz/NSF_RAPID_CIRCLE-CT_SURVEY_1_DASHBOARD_2021_v2/CIRCLE-CT

Alon, T., Coskun, S., Doepke, M., Koll, D., & Tertilt, M. (2021). “From Mancession to Shecession: Women's Employment in Regular and Pandemic Recessions.” (No. w28632). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~mdo738/research/ACDKT_0621.pdf

Ashcraft, C., McLain, B., & Eger, E. (2016). “Women in Tech: The Facts.” National Center for Women & Technology (NCWIT). https://ncwit.org/resource/thefacts.

E.g., NCWIT’s Workforce Alliance provides opportunities for learning, peer collaboration, and engagement in communities of practice. https://ncwit.org/about-ncwit/ncwit-alliances/workforce-alliance.

Ashcraft, C., McLain, B., & Eger, E. (2016). “Women in Tech: The Facts.” National Center for Women & Technology (NCWIT). https://ncwit.org/resource/thefacts.

Examples include Emory, Harvard and Stanford; see https://goizueta.emory.edu/executive-education/short-courses/diversity; https://www.hks.harvard.edu/educational-programs/executive-education/strategies-building-and-leading-diverse-organizations-0; and https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/exec-ed/programs/leverage-diversity-inclusion-organizational-excellence.

See https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/about/social-justice.html#~our-actions.

See https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/about/social-justice.html#~our-beliefs.

See https://blogs.cisco.com/news/investing-for-an-inclusive-future.

See https://studentfreedominitiative.org/.

See https://computex.net/. 

Mallick, M. (2020). “Do You Know Why Your Company Needs a CDO?” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/09/do-you-know-why-your-company-needs-a-chief-diversity-officer.

A protected class refers to an identity group that receives protection, usually against discrimination, under the law. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/protected_class.

Diversity Lab. “Mansfield Rule to boost diversity in leadership.” https://www.diversitylab.com/mansfield-rule-4-0.

DuBois, C. (2016). “The impact of ‘Soft’ Affirmative Action Policies on Minority Hiring in Executive Leadership: The Case of the NFL’s Rooney Rule.” American Law and Economics Review, 18(1), 208–233. https://doi.org/10.1093/aler/ahv019.; Cook, I. (n.d.) “How HR Can Tackle Diversity Using the Rooney Rule.” Clarity. https://www.visier.com/clarity/how-hr-can-tackle-diversity-using-the-rooney-rule.; DuBois, C. (2017). “What the NFL Can Teach Congress About Hiring More Diverse Staffs.” FiveThirtyEight. https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/what-the-nfl-can-teach-congress-about-hiring-more-diverse-staffs.

Justice William J. Brennan, who delivered the Court’s opinion on Steelworkers v. Weber in 1979, stated, “It would be ironic indeed if a law triggered by a Nation's concern over centuries of racial injustice and intended to improve the lot of those who had been excluded from the American dream for so long, constituted the first legislative prohibition of all voluntary, private, race-conscious efforts to abolish traditional patterns of racial segregation and hierarchy.”

Justia (2018). Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Justia.com. https://www.justia.com/employment/employment-discrimination/title-vii.

This is a key argument of Critical Race Theory. 

American Civil Liberties Union (2018). “Inclusion Targets: What’s Legal?” ACLU Fact Sheet. https://www.aclusocal.org/en/inclusion-targets-whats-legal.    

American Bar Association (2021, March). “Race Conscious Hiring Under Title VII.” https://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/events/labor_law/2021/midwinter/err/materials/race-conscious-hiring-under-title-vii.pdf.

In certain instances, an appropriately tailored VAAP may be legally permissible if it upholds the following guidelines: (a) the employer seeks to correct a “manifest imbalance in traditionally segregated job classifications;” (b) the employer’s voluntary affirmative action plan is temporary and remedial in its intent; and (c) The plan does not “unnecessarily trammel” the rights of the majority. See Johnson v. Santa Clara Transportation Agency, 480 U.S. 616 (1987); Steelworkers v. Weber, 443 U.S. 193, 208 (1979). There are specific legal considerations inherent to adopting any such plan, and they may not be an option for some employers.

Schwartz, D. (2020, September). “Developing a Diverse Workforce.” Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP and Affiliates. https://www.skadden.com/insights/publications/2020/09/quarterly-insights/developing-a-diverse-workforce.

Nusbaum, M. (2020, July). “How to Strengthen Your Affirmative Action Policies. HR Daily Advisor. https://hrdailyadvisor.blr.com/2020/07/27/how-to-strengthen-your-affirmative-action-policies/.

Mahaffy, S. (2020, August). “As S&P Companies Rethink D&I Policies, ESG Funds Attract Record Flows.” RBC. https://www.rbccm.com/en/insights/story.page?dcr=templatedata/article/insights/data/2020/08/as_sp_companies_rethink_di_policies_esg_funds_attract_record_flows.

Bucsescu, M. & Marchand Orme, A. (2020, June). “How Boards Can Help Address Systemic Racism in America.” NACD Boardtalk.  https://blog.nacdonline.org/posts/boards-address-systemic-racism.

Bateman, A., Barrington, A. & Date, K. (2020, August). “Why You Need a Supplier Diversity Program.” Harvard Business Reviewhttps://hbr.org/2020/08/why-you-need-a-supplier-diversity-program.

“Corporate Quick Start Guide: Supplier Diversity.” Intel Corporation. https://www.intel.com.br/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/corporate-information/external-supplier-diversity-quick-start-guide.pdf.

Intel defines “minority-owned” business as one that is at least 51% owned by, and whose management and daily business operations are controlled by, one or more members of a socially and economically disadvantaged minority group, namely U.S. citizens who are African Americans (Black), Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Pacific Americans, Alaskan Native Americans and Indian Sub-Continent Americans. Definitions vary for certification programs administered by federal, state and local agencies.  

See https://www.google.com/diversity/suppliers.

Mitchel, A., Alwyn S., (2020, June). “Building Economic Opportunity for Black Communities.” Netflix. https://about.netflix.com/en/news/building-economic-opportunity-for-black-communities.

See https://www.salesforce.com/company/equality/racial-equality-justice-taskforce.   

Heilman, M. (2012). “Gender stereotypes and workplace bias.” Research in Organizational Behavior, 32, 113-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2012.11.003

Igbaria, M., & Baroudi, J. (1995). “The Impact of Job Performance Evaluations on Career Advancement Prospects: An Examination of Gender Differences in the IS Workplace.” MIS Quarterly, 19(1), 107-123. https://www.jstor.org/stable/249713.

Bohnet, I. (2016). What Works: Gender Equality by Design. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. https://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674986565&content=bios.

National Center for Women and Information Technology (2015). “Recruiting, Retaining, and Advancing a Diverse Technical Workforce: Data Collection and Strategic Planning Guidelines.” www.ncwit.org/datacollectionguide; and, National Center for Women and Information Technology (2010).  “NCWIT Supervising-in-a-Box Series: Employee Recruitment/Selection.” https://ncwit.org/resource/supervising-in-a-box-series-employee-recruitment-selection.

Ashcraft, C., McLain, B. & Eger, E. (2016). “Women in Tech: The Facts.” National Center for Women and Information Technology. www.ncwit.org/thefacts.

Gender Diversity KPI Alliance (2021). “Position Statement.” KPI Alliance. https://www.gdka.org/kpis/position-statement.  

Implementing strategies to address the root causes identified in this report should have the outcome of increasing representation. Set targets for achieving this outcome but bear in mind that these outcomes measure progress toward inclusive culture; they do not directly indicate goal achievement.

NCWIT offers a suite of research-based tools--the Tech Inclusion Journey Toolkit--to guide companies in assessing DEI maturity, setting goals, developing strategic action plans toward those goals, and measuring progress toward inclusive culture. See https://ncwit.org/program/tech-inclusion-journey.

Inclusion is more difficult to measure and track than diversity, but it is no less important. Numerous researchers and academics are investigating how best to measure inclusion, and new tools are on the horizon. See, e.g., Gaudiano, P. (2019, April 23). “Inclusion Is Invisible: How To Measure It.” Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/paologaudiano/2019/04/23/inclusion-is-invisible-how-to-measure-it; & Gaudiano, P. (2019, April 29). “Inclusion Is Invisible: What You Should Measure.” Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/paologaudiano/2019/04/29/inclusion-is-invisible-what-you-should-measure

See https://www.bbc.co.uk/5050.

Bohnet, I. & Chilazi, S. (2020). “Goals and Targets for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: A High Leverage Point to Advance Gender Equality in the U.S. Tech Industry.” Harvard Kennedy School. https://wappp.hks.harvard.edu/files/wappp/files/dei_goals_in_us_tech_bohnet_chilazi.pdf.

Dobbin, F., & Kalev, A. (2016). “Why Diversity Programs Fail and What Works Better.” Harvard Business Review, 94(7-8), 52-60. https://hbr.org/2016/07/why-diversity-programs-fail.

Tips adapted from Pinarchick, C. (2019). “Follow These 7 Steps to an Effective Pay-Equity Audit.” Human Resource Executive. https://hrexecutive.com/follow-these-7-steps-to-an-effective-pay-equity-audit.

See NCWIT Task Assignment Toolkit. https://ncwit.org/resource/taskassignment

Duckworth, A. (2016). Grit: The power of passion and perseverance. Simon & Schuster.

Dasgupta, B. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com.

Clauset, A., Arbesman, S., & Larremore, D.B. (2015). “Systematic Inequality and Hierarchy in Faculty Hiring Networks.” Science Advances, 1(1); Kahlenberg, R.D. (2010). “Affirmative Action for the Rich: Legacy Preferences in College Admissions.” Century Foundation; Pinsker (2019). “The Real Reasons Legacy Preferences Exist.” The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2019/04/legacy-admissions-preferences-ivy/586465

For tips on creating effective anti-bias trainings, see Carter, E. R., Onyeador, I. N., & Lewis, N. A., Jr. (2020). “Developing & delivering effective anti-bias training: Challenges & recommendations.” Behavioral Science & Policy, 6(1), 57–70. https://www.dropbox.com/s/ptkqhplyw3bcklb/Carter%20et%20al%20%282020%29%20Developing%20%26%20delivering%20effective%20anti-bias%20training%3A%20Challenges%20%26%20recommendations%20%2B%20Commentary.pdf?dl=0.

Ashcraft, C., McLain, B. & Eger, E. (2016). “Women in Tech: The Facts.” National Center for Women and Information Technology, 53. www.ncwit.org/thefacts.

Freeland Fisher, J. (2019, December). “How to Get a Job Often Comes Down to One Personal Asset.” CNBC Opinion. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/12/27/how-to-get-a-job-often-comes-down-to-one-elite-personal-asset.html.

Direct quote from Dasgupta, B. (2021) ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com.

Smart Recruiters (2021). “Time to Hire: Why You Should Replace it in 2021. Hiring Success Glossary.” https://www.smartrecruiters.com/resources/glossary/time-to-hire

Kane Partners (2020, January). “A focus on skills, not degrees, in the new decade.” Kane Partners, LLC Staffing Solutions. https://kanepartners.net/a-focus-on-skills-not-degrees-in-the-new-decade. See also Hohmann, J. (Host). (2021, July 30). “Why employers should do away with college degree requirements” [Audio podcast episode] in Please, go on with James Hohmann. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/podcasts/please-go-on/why-employers-should-do-away-with-college-degree-requirements.

Cusak, D. (2020, Spring). “The Equity Case for Competency-Based Hiring.” Higher Ed Magazine. https://www.cupahr.org/issue/feature/the-equity-case-for-competency-based-hiring

Counter, R. (2018, September). “Want a Job in Canadian Tech?  Don’t Worry about that University Degree.” Canadian Businesshttps://www.canadianbusiness.com/work/want-a-job-in-canadian-tech-dont-worry-about-that-university-degree

See https://grow.google/certificates/#?modal_active=none

IBM (2021, January). “How the U.S. can Lead in Education and Build a More Equitable Economy.” https://www.ibm.com/policy/education-skills

Fuller, J. & Raman, M. (2017). “Dismissed By Degrees: How degree inflation is undermining U.S. competitiveness and hurting America’s middle class.” Published by Accenter, Grads of Life, Harvard Business School. https://www.hbs.edu/managing-the-future-of-work/Documents/dismissed-by-degrees.pdf

See https://ncwit.org/resource/jobdescriptionanalysis

See https://textio.com/ and http://gender-decoder.katmatfield.com

Bohnet, I. (2016, April 18).  “How to Take the Bias out of Interviews.” Harvard Business Review.  Reprinted at http://cdi.brighamandwomens.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/How-to-Take-the-Bias-Out-of-Interviews.pdf.

Torres, M. (2020). “Why ‘Culture Fit’ is a Failed Idea in American Hiring.” Huffpost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/culture-fit-failed-idea-in-hiring_l_5f1f2319c5b69fd47310363e.

See, e.g., Cheney, G., & Ashcraft, K.L. (2007). “Considering “the professional” in communication studies: Implications for theory and research within and beyond the boundaries of organizational communication.” Communication theory, 17(2), 146-175.

The Rooney Rule was implemented by the NFL requiring at least one person of color to be interviewed for open coaching jobs. https://www.nfl.com/news/nfl-instituting-changes-to-rooney-rule

Johnson, S. K. , Hekman, D. R. and Chan, E. T. (2016, April). “If There’s Only One Woman in Your Candidate Pool, There’s Statistically No Chance She’ll Be Hired.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2016/04/if-theres-only-one-woman-in-your-candidate-pool-theres-statistically-no-chance-shell-be-hired.

Diversity Lab. Mansfield Rule 4.0. https://www.diversitylab.com/mansfield-rule-4-0

Johnson, S. K, Hekman, D. R. and Chan, E. T. (2016, April). “If There’s Only One Woman in Your Candidate Pool, There’s Statistically No Chance She’ll Be Hired.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2016/04/if-theres-only-one-woman-in-your-candidate-pool-theres-statistically-no-chance-shell-be-hired.

Arian, S. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com

See https://la-tech.org

See https://pledgela.org.

See https://www.rebootrepresentation.org.

Several recent meta-analyses support the conclusion that families are very influential on students’ career choices: Castro, M., et al. (2015). Parental Involvement on Student Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis.” Educational Research Review 14 (33-46). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2015.01.002.; Hill, N., & Tyson D. (2009). “Parental Involvement in Middle School: A Meta-Analytic Assessment of the Strategies that Promote Achievement.” Developmental Psychology 45(3), 740. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015362; Jeynes, W. (2010). “The Salience of the Subtle Aspects of Parental Involvement and Encouraging that Involvement: Implications for School-Based Programs.” Teachers College Record,112(3), 747-774. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2011-16063-002.; Wilder, S. (2014). “Effects of Parental Involvement on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Synthesis.” Educational Review 66(3): 377-397 https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2013.780009.

See https://www.highlights.com/.

See https://www.ebony.com.

See https://latinastyle.com.

See https://www.univision.com.

See https://www.womensradio.com/top-hosts.

Eccles, J. (1983). “Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors.” In J. T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motives: Psychological and sociological approaches, 76–138. W.H. Freeman.

See https://technolochicas.org.

Ajunwa, I. (2019). “The Auditing Imperative for Automated Hiring.” 34 Harv. J.L. & Tech. (Forthcoming 2021). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3437631 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3437631; see also Raghavan, M., Barocas, S., Kleinberg, J., & Levy, K. (2020, January). “Mitigating bias in algorithmic hiring: Evaluating claims and practices”. In Proceedings of the 2020 conference on fairness, accountability, and transparency, 469-481.

Henry-Nickie, M. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com.

Burt. A. (2020, August). “How to fight discrimination in AI.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/08/how-to-fight-discrimination-in-ai

Deloitte (2020). ”Trustworthy AI Framework.”  https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/pages/deloitte-analytics/solutions/ethics-of-ai-framework.html.

Henry-Nickie, M. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com.

Jayatilleki, B., Hyman, B. Introducing FAIR: A Global Standard for the Responsible Use of AI in Recruitment.

See https://ncwit.org/resource/supervising-in-a-box-series-performance-review-talent-management.

Mayo, A. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com.

Correll, S. J., & Simard, C. (2016). “Research: Vague Feedback Is Holding Women Back.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2016/04/research-vague-feedback-is-holding-women-back.

Cecchi-Dimeglio, P. (2017). “How Gender Bias Corrupts Performance Reviews, and What to Do About It.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2017/04/how-gender-bias-corrupts-performance-reviews-and-what-to-do-about-it.

Inesi, M. E., & Cable, D. M. (2015). “When accomplishments come back to haunt you: The negative effect of competence signals on women's performance evaluations.” Personnel Psychology, 68(3), 615-657. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/peps.12083; Heilman, M. E., Wallen, A. S., Fuchs, D., & Tamkins, M. M. (2004). “Penalties for success: Reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks.” Journal of applied psychology, 89(3), 416. https://doi.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.89.3.416.

Swim, J. K., & Sanna, L. J. (1996). “He’s Skilled, She’s Lucky: A Meta-Analysis of Observers’ Attributions for Women’s and Men’s Successes and Failures.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(5), 507–519. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0146167296225008.

Exley, C. L., & Kessler, J. B. (2019). “The Gender Gap in Self-Promotion” (NBER Working Paper, No. 26345). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/26345.html

Bohnet I., Hauser, O., & Kristal, A. (2020). “Demand- and Supply-side Effects in Performance Appraisals: The Role of Gender and Race” (HKS Working Paper). https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/iris_bohnet/files/performance.2020-05-20.final_005.pdf.

Rudman, L. (1998). “Self-Promotion as a Risk Factor for Women: The Costs and Benefits of Counterstereotypical Impression Management.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(3), 629-45. 

Heilman, M. E., & Okimoto, T. G. (2007). “Why are women penalized for success at male tasks?: The implied communality deficit.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 81–92. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.81.

See https://ncwit.org/resources/unconscious-bias-performance-evaluation-and-promotion-fact-sheet.

See https://www.ncwit.org/resources/task-assignment-toolkit.

See https://ncwit.org/resource/supervising-in-a-box-series-employee-development.

See https://ncwit.org/resources/top-10-ways-managers-can-increase-the-visibility-of-technical-women.

See https://www.ncwit.org/resources/how-can-companies-promote-innovation-diverse-employees

See https://www.ncwit.org/resources/resources-increasing-participation-and-transparency-patenting.

See https://www.ncwit.org/resources/how-can-encouragement-increase-persistence-computing.

Madden, J. F. (2012). “Performance-Support Bias and the Gender Pay Gap among Stockbrokers.” Gender & Society26(3), 488–518. 

De Pater, I. E., Van Vianen, A. E. M., & Bechtoldt, M. N. (2010). “Gender Differences in Job Challenge: A Matter of Task Allocation.” Gender, Work & Organization, 17(4), 433-453. 

Madden, J. F., & Vekker, A. (2017). “Output‐Based Performance Pay, Performance‐Support Bias, and the Racial Pay Gap within a Large Retail Stock Brokerage.” Industrial Relations (Berkeley), 56(4), 662-687. 

Chan, C. K., & Anteby, M. (2016). “Task Segregation as a Mechanism for Within-job Inequality: Women and Men of the Transportation Security Administration.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 61(2), 184-216. 

Babcock, L., Recalde, M. P., Vesterlund, L., & Weingart, L. (2017). ”Gender Differences in Accepting and Receiving Requests for Tasks with Low Promotability.” American Economic Review107(3), 714-47. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/aer.20141734. See also Babcock, L., Recalde, M. P., & Vesterlund, L. (2017). ”Gender Differences in the Allocation of Low-Promotability Tasks: The Role of Backlash.” American Economic Review, 107(5), 131-35. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/aer.p20171018.

Chilazi, S. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com.

See https://www.ncwit.org/resources/task-assignment-toolkit

See https://ncwit.org/resources/sponsors-vs-mentors-whats-the-difference-infographic.

Dasgupta, N., & Asgari, S. (2004). “Seeing is believing: Exposure to counterstereotypic women leaders and its effect on automatic gender stereotyping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 642-658.; Dennehy, T.C & Dasgupta, N. (2017). “Female peer mentors early in college increase women’s positive academic experiences and retention in engineering.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(23), 5964-5969; Stout, J. G., Dasgupta, N., Hunsinger, M., & McManus, M. A. (2011). “STEMing the tide: Using ingroup experts to inoculate women’s self-concept in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 255-270.; Yeager, D.S., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Garcia, J., Apfel, N.,Brzustoski, P., Master, A., Hessert, W.T. Williams, M.E., Cohen, G.L. (2014). “Breaking the cycle of mistrust: Wise interventions to provide critical feedback across the racial divide.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(2), 804-824. 

Mayo, A. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com.

Erb, M. (2021, June). “New Research Shows Leaders are Missing the Problems and Promise of Employee Resource Groups.” Great Place to Work. https://www.greatplacetowork.com/resources/blog/new-research-shows-leaders-are-missing-the-promise-and-problems-of-employee-resource-groups

See https://scholar.harvard.edu/iris_bohnet/what-works and https://robertwlivingston.com/books/the-conversation.

Leibbrandt, A., List, J. (2014, September). ”Do Women Avoid Salary Negotiations? Evidence from a Large-Scale Natural Field Experiment.” Management Science Volume 61, Issue 9. https://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/10.1287/mnsc.2014.1994.

Carnes, M., Devine, P. G., Manwell, L. B., Byars-Winston, A., Fine, E., Ford, C. E., & Sheridan, J. (2015). “Effect of an intervention to break the gender bias habit for faculty at one institution: a cluster randomized, controlled trial”. Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 90(2), 221. https://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Fulltext/2015/02000/The_Effect_of_an_Intervention_to_Break_the_Gender.29.aspx

Walton, G. M., Logel, C., Peach, J. M., Spencer, S. J., & Zanna, M. P. (2015). “Two brief interventions to mitigate a ‘chilly climate’ transform women’s experience, relationships, and achievement in engineering.” Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(2), 468. https://doi.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fa0037461

The Behavioral Insights Team. (2017). “Gender equality.”  https://www.bi.team/articles/gender-equality.

Baldiga, K. (2014). “Gender differences in willingness to guess.” Management Science, 60(2), 434-448. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=51545.

Bohnet, I. (2019). “We can’t get rid of bias—but we can disrupt it by design.” Evoke.  https://www.evoke.org/articles/March_2019/Forward/Big_Ideas/disrupting_bias_by_design and the original paper at: https://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/10.1287/mnsc.2015.2186.

Fosset, J., Gilchrist D., & Luca, M. (2018, November). “Using Experiments to Launch New Products.” Harvard Business Reviewhttps://hbr.org/2018/11/using-experiments-to-launch-new-products.

See Harvard Kenny School’s Gender Action Portal at https://gap.hks.harvard.edu.

The Behavior Insights Team (2018). Reducing the gender pay gap and improving gender equality in organisations: Evidence-based actions for employers.” UK Government Equalities Project. https://www.bi.team/publications/reducing-the-gender-pay-gap-and-improving-gender-equality-in-organisations.

DiversityInc (2020). The History and Evolution of ERGs. DiversityInchttps://www.diversityinc.com/history-and-evolution-of-employee-resource-groups-ergs.

United Nations. U.N. Factsheet on Persons with Disabilities. https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/resources/factsheet-on-persons-with-disabilities.html

See https://disabilityin.org/announcements/ceo-letter-on-disability-inclusion

See https://disabilityin.org/what-we-do/disability-equality-index

See https://disabilityin.org/what-we-do/inclusion-works.

See https://disabilityin.org/resources.

E.g., A 2007 FTC investigation found that Black and Hispanic/Latinx individuals were overrepresented in the lowest credit categories. See Federal Trade Commission. (2007). Credit-based insurance scores: Impacts on consumers of automobile insurance, https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/documents/reports/credit-based-insurance-scores-impacts-consumers-automobile-insurance-report-congress-federal-trade/p044804facta_report_credit-based_insurance_scores.pdf. For a brief explanation of how racial credit score disparities are rooted in discriminatory practices, see Singletary, M. (2020, October). Credit scores are supposed to be race-neutral. That’s impossible. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/10/16/how-race-affects-your-credit-score/. 

Example provided by Steven Huang, DEI Consultant (personal communication, 2021).

See https://www.blog.google/outreach-initiatives/diversity/products-work-you-no-matter-who-you-are.

Ian Hosking, Senior Research Associate, Cambridge University Engineering Design Centre, quoted in Harvard Business Review Analytic Services, sponsored by Google. (2021, March). “The Business Case for Product Inclusion Design Practices.” https://hbr.org/sponsored/2021/03/the-business-case-for-product-inclusion-design-practices

Disability Science Review. (2016, December). “The Curb Cut Effect:  How Making Public Spaces Accessible to People with Disabilities Helps Everyone.” https://medium.com/@mosaicofminds/the-curb-cut-effect-how-making-public-spaces-accessible-to-people-with-disabilities-helps-everyone-d69f24c58785.

See https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG21.

See https://www.a11yproject.com/checklist

See https://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG21/Understanding/intro

See tips specific to the use in the quick glance at  https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/wcag/glance.

See https://www.ajl.org.

Nouri, S. (2021). “The Role of Bias in Artificial Intelligence.” Forbes Technology Council. https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2021/02/04/the-role-of-bias-in-artificial-intelligence/?sh=566dc570579d.

GLAAS. (2021). Social Media Safety Index. https://www.glaad.org/sites/default/files/images/2021-05/GLAAD%20SOCIAL%20MEDIA%20SAFETY%20INDEX_0.pdf.  

See https://haas.berkeley.edu/equity/industry/playbooks/mitigating-bias-in-ai

See https://global-uploads.webflow.com/5e027ca188c99e3515b404b7/5e332b739c247f30b4888385_AJL%20101%20Final%20_1.22.20.pdf.

See World Economic Forum & BSR. (2019). Responsible Use of Technology [White Paper]. World Economic Forum.  http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Responsible_Use_of_Technology.pdf

21st Century Fox, The Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media, and J. Walter Thompson Intelligence (2018). “The Scully Effect: I want to believe in STEM.” https://seejane.org/research-informs-empowers/the-scully-effect-i-want-to-believe-in-stem

British Film Institute Diversity Standards Criteria and Extended Guidance Notes. (2019). https://www.bfi.org.uk/inclusion-film-industry/bfi-diversity-standards

See https://dei.amazonstudios.com/inclusion-policy.

See https://dei.amazonstudios.com/inclusion-playbook.

CNN recognized the limitations, calling it “a blunt and imperfect measurement tool,” see https://money.cnn.com/2011/11/09/technology/diversity_silicon_valley/index.htm?iid=EL. Read more about the history of the diversity report in tech and CNN’s Freedom of Information Request at https://money.cnn.com/2011/11/09/technology/diversity_silicon_valley/index.htm?iid=EL

“The EEO-1 is a report filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), mandated by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1967, as amended by the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972. The act requires that employers report on the racial/ethnic and gender composition of their workforce by specific job categories” (SHRM - Society of Human Resource Management). See  https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/hr-qa/pages/newfilingrequirements.aspx.

Heighington, J. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com.

Research shows that only a systemic approach can move the needle. See Kapor Center: The Leaky Tech Pipeline. https://leakytechpipeline.com.

Heighington, J. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com.

United States Census Data. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045219.  

National Science Board. Demographic Attributes of S&E Degree Recipients. https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsb20197/demographic-attributes-of-s-e-degree-recipients

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Diversity in High Tech. https://www.eeoc.gov/special-report/diversity-high-tech.

Heighington, J. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com.

Bohnet, I. & Chilazi, S. (2020). Goals and Targets for Diversity, Equity and Inclusion - A High Leverage Point to Advance Gender Equality in the US Tech Industry. Harvard Kennedy School. https://wappp.hks.harvard.edu/files/wappp/files/dei_goals_in_us_tech_bohnet_chilazi.pdf.

Cantieri, B. (n. d.). How to measure diversity and inclusion for a stronger workplace. Survey Monkey. https://www.surveymonkey.com/mp/diversity-and-inclusion-guide/#measuring-inclusion

Novick, B., Deese, B., Clark, T., Evans, C., Lessne, A., Muldoon, M., & Pun, W. (2020). Towards a Common Language for Sustainable Investing. In Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance (Vol. 22). https://www.blackrock.com/corporate/literature/whitepaper/viewpoint-towards-a-common-language-for-sustainable-investing-january-2020.pdf

Tett, G. (2020). Big Four Financial Firms Unveil ESG Reporting Standards. Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/16644cb2-f0c1-4b32-b44c-647eb0ab938d

Internet Association (2019). Internet Association Inaugural Diversity & Inclusion Benchmark Report. https://internetassociation.org/publications/ia-inaugural-diversity-inclusion-benchmark-report.

See https://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/diversity-in-tech.

See https://tpinsights.com

See https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1OZx-_tm3PPyx6-ZJAST1xxOJRfn7KfYDjDT6JedrTfs/edit#gid=0.

Shallom, R. (2020, November). Introducing Measure Up, our partnership with Refinitiv to Measure Racial Diversity. Fortune. https://fortune.com/2020/11/17/measure-up-fortune-refinitiv-racial-diversity

See https://www.uber.com/newsroom/reaffirming-our-commitment/.

Chilazi, S. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com

Dasgupta, B. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com

Project Include (n.d.). Measuring Progress. https://projectinclude.org/measuring_progress#

Crenshaw, K. (1989). “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics.” University of Chicago Legal Forum 1989 (8), 139-167. https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/uclf/vol1989/iss1/8.

Crenshaw, K. (2016). “The Urgency of Intersectionality,” TEDWomen 2016. https://www.ted.com/talks/kimberle_crenshaw_the_urgency_of_intersectionality?language=en

National Center for Women & Information Technology. Intersectionality in Tech 101. https://www.ncwit.org/print/28096

Miller, K., & Vagins, D. (2018). “The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap.” AAUW. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED596219.pdf

See, e.g.,Mohan, P. (2021). “Why So Many Companies’ Diversity Numbers Fall Flat.” Fast Company. https://www.fastcompany.com/90596608/why-so-many-companies-diversity-numbers-fall-flat

Project Include (n.d.). Measuring Progress. https://projectinclude.org/measuring_progress#

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Overview. https://www.eeoc.gov/overview

Jurisdictions outside the U.S. may place different restrictions on what kind of data can be collected, e.g., GDPR regulations in the E.U.  

Gee, B., Peck, D., & Wong, J. (2015). Hidden in Plain Sight: Asian American Leaders in Silicon Valley. The Ascend Foundation. https://asiasociety.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/HiddenInPlainSight_Paper_042.pdf

Project Include (n.d.). Measuring Progress. https://projectinclude.org/measuring_progress#metrics-should-be-consistent-across-the-industry.

See https://projectinclude.org/measuring_progress#metrics-should-be-consistent-across-the-industry

Brown, K. (2018). “To Retain Employees, Focus on Inclusion—Not Just Diversity.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2018/12/to-retain-employees-focus-on-inclusion-not-just-diversity

In the 2018 Mercer US Turnover Survey of 163 US organizations, the average turnover in High Tech was 20.9%. See Agovino, T. (2019). “To Have and to Hold.” SHRM. https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/all-things-work/pages/to-have-and-to-hold.aspx. And, in its 2020 Retention Report, Work Institute conservatively estimates that an employee leaving (either voluntarily or involuntarily) costs about one third of the employee’s annual earnings. https://info.workinstitute.com/hubfs/2020%20Retention%20Report/Work%20Institutes%202020%20Retention%20Report.pdf

Heighington, J. (2021). ACT Report invited brief. www.ACTReport.com.

Cantieri, B. (n.d.). Measuring Inclusion. Survey Monkey. https://www.surveymonkey.com/mp/diversity-and-inclusion-guide/#measuring-inclusion

Bohnet, I. & Chilazi, S. (2020), Goals and Targets for Diversity, Equity and Inclusion - A High Leverage Point to Advance Gender Equality in the US Tech Industry. Harvard Kennedy School. https://wappp.hks.harvard.edu/files/wappp/files/dei_goals_in_us_tech_bohnet_chilazi.pdf

Project Include (n.d.). Measuring Progress. https://projectinclude.org/measuring_progress#

Unilever NV (2020, March 3). “Nine ways we're making Unilever a more gender-balanced business.” MarketScreener.  Cited in Bohnet, I. & Chilazi, S. (2020), Goals and Targets for Diversity, Equity and Inclusion - A High Leverage Point to Advance Gender Equality in the US Tech Industry. Harvard Kennedy School. https://wappp.hks.harvard.edu/files/wappp/files/dei_goals_in_us_tech_bohnet_chilazi.pdf

Frey, W. (2018). “The US Will Become ‘minority white’ in 2045, Census Projects: Youthful Minorities are the Engine of Future Growth.” Brookings Blog. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2018/03/14/the-us-will-become-minority-white-in-2045-census-projects/

Bohnet, I. & Chilazi, S. (2020). “Goals and Targets for Diversity, Equity and Inclusion - A High Leverage Point to Advance Gender Equality in the US Tech Industry.” Harvard Kennedy School. https://wappp.hks.harvard.edu/files/wappp/files/dei_goals_in_us_tech_bohnet_chilazi.pdf

Dobbin, F., & Kalev, A. (2016). “Why diversity programs fail and what works better.” Harvard Business Review, 94(7-8), 52-60. https://hbr.org/2016/07/why-diversity-programs-fail

Bohnet, I., Hauser, O., & Chilazi, S. (2020). “Gender Proportionality Aspiration [Manuscript in preparation]. Harvard Kennedy School.

Heilman, M., & Welle, B. (2006). “Disadvantaged by Diversity? The Effects of Diversity Goals on Competence Perceptions.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(5), 1291-1319.

Rich, M., Cox, A., Bloch., M. (2016). “Money, Race and Success: How Your School District Compares.” The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/04/29/upshot/money-race-and-success-how-your-school-district-compares.html

Dynarski, S. (2016). “Why American Schools Are Even More Unequal Than We Thought.” The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/14/upshot/why-american-schools-are-even-more-unequal-than-we-thought.html

CLA (2018). “Educating For Equity and Access in Computer Science.” Communications of the ACM. https://cacm.acm.org/opinion/interviews/224978-educating-for-equity-and-access-in-computer-science/fulltext.

See Margolis, J., Estrella, R., Goode, J. Holme, J. J., & Nao, K. Stuck in the Shallow End Education, Race, and Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 

For example see Multiverse, an organization seeking to disrupt the university model by providing opportunity and high quality apprenticeships to underrepresented groups who are not going to university. https://www.multiverse.io/en-US

See Multiverse, an organization delivering apprenticeships, including the tech industry, for underrepresented groups. https://www.multiverse.io/en-US.

Eswaran, V. (2019). “The business case for diversity in the workplace is now overwhelming.” World Economic Forum.   https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/04/business-case-for-diversity-in-the-workplace; Stowe, L. (2020). “Why Diversity in Tech is Important.” DevSkiller.  https://devskiller.com/diversity-in-tech; Catalyst. (2020). “Why Diversity and Inclusion Matter.” Quick Take. https://www.catalyst.org/research/why-diversity-and-inclusion-matter

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). “Toward a Unifying Social Cognitive Theory of Career and Academic Interest, Choice, and Performance.” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45(1), 79–122. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1994.1027.  

Trusty, J. (2002). “Effects of High School Course-Taking and Other Variables on Choice of Science and Mathematics College Majors.” Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(4), 464–474. 

See https://ecepalliance.org

See https://advocacy.code.org/2020_state_of_cs.pdf

See https://ecepalliance.org/about/alliance-members.

For more information, contact ecepalliance@gmail.com.

See https://ecepalliance.org/summit-toolkit.

See https://www.csteachers.org/page/standards.

See https://advocacy.code.org.

Yadav, A., & Berges, M. (2019). “Computer Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Characterizing Teacher Performance.” ACM Transactions on Computing Education, 19(3), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1145/3303770.

K12 Computer Science (n.d.). “Computational Thinking.” K12cs.Org. https://k12cs.org/computational-thinking/.

See https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/teals.

Will, M. (2018, May). “Nearly Half of Public School Teachers Are Satisfied With Their Salaries, Data Show.” Education Weekhttps://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/nearly-half-of-public-school-teachers-are-satisfied-with-their-salaries-data-show/2018/05.

Koshy, S., Martin, A., Hinton, L., Scott, A., Twarek, B., & Davis, K. (2021). “The computer science teacher landscape: Results of a nationwide teacher survey.” The Kapor Center and CSTA, 19. https://mk0kaporcenter5ld71a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/KC21002_-CS-Teacher-Survey-Report_final.pdf.

See Recommendation 1 from Koshy, S., Martin, A., Hinton, L., Scott, A., Twarek, B., & Davis, K. (2021). “The computer science teacher landscape: Results of a nationwide teacher survey.” The Kapor Center and CSTA, 19. https://mk0kaporcenter5ld71a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/KC21002_-CS-Teacher-Survey-Report_final.pdf.

Lewis, J. A., Mendenhall, R., Ojiemwen, A., Thomas, M., Riopelle, C., Harwood, S. A., & Browne Huntt, M. (2019). “Racial microaggressions and sense of belonging at a historically white university.” American Behavioral Scientist, 0002764219859613. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0002764219859613. Also see Camacho, M. M., & Lord, S. M. (2011). “Microaggressions” in engineering education: Climate for Asian, Latina and White women.” 2011 Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), S3H-1-S3H-6.  https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6142970.

See https://ncwit.org/program/highered-programs/extension-services.

See http://www.lastmile-ed.org.

See https://cs.mines.edu/bridge-partners.

See NCWIT Extension Services Information Sheet. https://ncwit.org/program/highered-programs/extension-services

NCWIT. “Advance Women in Research Careers: NCWIT Extension Services for Graduate Programs.” https://wpassets.ncwit.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/28160424/advancewomeninresearchcareers_ncwitesgradprograms.pdf.

See US Dept. of Labor, Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (n.d.). HBCU Recruitment Strategies.  https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ofccp/compliance-assistance/outreach/hbcu-initiative/recruitment-strategies

See https://chicago.breakthroughtech.org/sprinternships

See Charles, R. (2021). “The Employer Guide to Building a Successful University Co-Op Program.” Simplicity Recruit. https://www.symplicity.com/employers/campus-recruiting/resources/the-employer-guide-to-building-a-successful-university-co-op-program

See https://careers.jpmorgan.com/us/en/students/programs/tech-connect?search=&tags=location__Americas__UnitedStatesofAmerica.  

See https://www.zipcodewilmington.com

See https://grow.google/certificates/#.

See https://fellowship.spotify.com.

See https://www.techtalentpipeline.nyc.

Lang, I, Van Lee R. (2020, August). “Institutional Investors Must Help Close the Race and Gender Gaps in Venture Capital.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/08/institutional-investors-must-help-close-the-race-and-gender-gaps-in-venture-capital.

Deutsch, W. (2021, May). “Women and Minority Investors are taking matters into their own hands.” Chicago Booth Review. https://hbr.org/2020/08/institutional-investors-must-help-close-the-race-and-gender-gaps-in-venture-capital; Edwards, E. (2021, February). “Check your stats: The Lack Of Diversity In Venture Capital Is Worse Than It Looks.” Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/elizabethedwards/2021/02/24/check-your-stats-the-lack-of-diversity-in-venture-capital-is-worse-than-it-looks/?sh=48ec4e26185d

Cole, C. (2020). Diversity Q: A practical guide to diversity and inclusion for startups. https://diversityq.com/a-practical-guide-to-diversity-and-inclusion-in-startups-1510036.

Lever. (2019). The Diversity and Inclusion Handbook. https://www.lever.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Diversity_and_Inclusion_Handbook_2019_digital_053019.pdf.

See https://www.svb.com/globalassets/library/uploadedfiles/content/trends_and_insights/reports/startup_outlook_report/suo_global_report_2020-final.pdf.

See https://www.wired.com/story/startup-founders-think-real-progress-diversity-years-away.

Fitzhugh, E., Julien, J., Noel, N; and Stewart, S. (2020). “It’s Time for a New Approach to Racial Equity,” McKinsey & Company. https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/diversity-and-inclusion/its-time-for-a-new-approach-to-racial-equity

Independently produced by TEAM but informed by direct consultation with diverse industry and community stakeholders.

BSR™ is an organization of sustainable business experts that works with its global network of the world’s leading companies to build a just and sustainable world. https://www.bsr.org/en.

Othering & Belonging Institute, University of California Berkeley. https://belonging.berkeley.edu.

See https://blacklivesmatter.com.

See https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diversity.

Emory University Office of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (n.d.). Common Terms. https://equityandinclusion.emory.edu/resources/self-guided-learning/common-terms.html.

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. Random House.; Dweck, C. (2016). “What Having a ‘Growth Mindset’ Actually Means.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2016/01/what-having-a-growth-mindset-actually-means#

See, e.g., ​​Cruz, A. (2018, October). The problematic history of the word “Hispanic.” TeenVogue [Op Ed for Latinx Heritage Month]. https://www.teenvogue.com/story/problematic-history-of-hispanic-word

Noe-Bustamante, L., Mora, L., & Lopez, M. H. (2020). About One-in-Four U.S. Hispanics Have Heard of Latinx, but Just 3% Use It. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2020/08/11/about-one-in-four-u-s-hispanics-have-heard-of-latinx-but-just-3-use-it.

See https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/inclusion.

Ries, E. (2011). “The lean startup: How today's entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses.” Crown Business. 

See https://www.aspeninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/files/content/docs/rcc/RCC-Structural-Racism-Glossary.pdf; https://knowledge.insead.edu/blog/insead-blog/unearthing-the-roots-of-systemic-racism-14701; and https://belonging.berkeley.edu/roots-structural-racism.

Operationalize DEI throughout the business

ALTERNATIVE STYLE: RETAIN THE END NOTE NUMBERING.

  1. Taken from sections in NCWIT presentation materials. See also Block, C. J., & Noumair, D. A. (2017). “Understanding Diversity Dynamics in Systems: Social Equality as an Organization Change Issue.” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 53(2), 150–155. See also Dobbin, F., & Kalev, A. (2018). “Why doesn't diversity training work? The challenge for industry and academia.” Anthropology Now, 10(2), 48-55.
  2. Scott, A., Klein, F. K., & Onovakpuri, U. (2017). Tech leavers study: A first of its kind analysis of why people voluntarily left jobs in tech.”  Kapor Center for Social Impact. https://mk0kaporcenter5ld71a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/TechLeavers2017.pdf. See also National Center for Women and Information Technology (2016). “Women in IT: The Facts Infographic.” https://ncwit.org/women-in-it-the-facts-infographic-2016-update.
  3. The Google Career Certificates Employer Consortium consists of over 130 U.S. companies like Better.com, Deloitte, Infosys, Snap Inc., Target, Verizon, and Google. See Google Career Certificates at https://grow.google/certificates/#?modal_active=none and Chelsea Rucker’s story in this 3 minute video at https://grow.google/certificates/#?modal_active=modal-7qTxcaEcz-g.
  4. See, for example: OECD Gender Data and Analyses. https://www.oecd.org/gender; McKinsey & Company and LeanIn.org (2021). “Women in the Workplace Report.” https://wiw-report.s3.amazonaws.com/Women_in_the_Workplace_2020.pdf; World Economic Forum (2021, March). “WEF Global Gender Gap Report 2021.” https://www.weforum.org/reports/global-gender-gap-report-2021. See also Alvarado, L.A. (2010). “Dispelling the Meritocracy Myth: Lessons for Higher Education and Student Affairs Educators. Vermont Connection (31), 10-20.” https://www.uvm.edu/~vtconn/v31/Alvarado.pdf.
  5. Fisher, D. R. (2020). “The diversity of the recent Black Lives Matter protests is a good sign for racial equity.” Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2020/07/08/the-diversity-of-the-recent-black-lives-matter-protests-is-a-good-sign-for-racial-equity
  6. Ely, Robin J.  and Thomas, David A. (November - December 2020).  “Getting Serious About Diversity,” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/11/getting-serious-about-diversity-enough-already-with-the-business-case
  7. Kennedy, J. T. and Jain-Link, P. (June 2021). “What does it take to build a culture of belonging?” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2021/06/what-does-it-take-to-build-a-culture-of-belonging.
  8. Othering & Belonging Institute, University of California Berkeley. https://belonging.berkeley.edu.
  9. Kim, D. H. (1999). Introduction to systems thinking (Vol. 16). Waltham, MA: Pegasus Communications. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/535849dae4b0f67f52ae0568/t/5e42d6fbecf987525cb25dfc/1581438716299/Introduction+to+Systems+Thinking.pdf.
  10. Bobb, K. (2018). “Systemic Investments in Equity, Talent, and Tech: Findings from a CECP Accelerate Community.” CECP. http://cecp.co/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/cecp_equity-talent_2018_FINAL.pdf?redirect=no
  11. McKinsey & Company and LeanIn.org (2021). “Women in the Workplace Report.” https://womenintheworkplace.com.
  12. Qian, Y., & Yavorsky, J. E. (2021). “The Under-Utilization of Women’s Talent: Academic Achievement and Future Leadership Positions.” Social Forces, 1, 35. For a short summary, see: The University of British Columbia (2021). “Women with straight As in High School Have Same Leadership Prospects as Men with Failing Grades.” https://news.ubc.ca/2021/02/03/good-grades-and-leadership
  13. Theuer, C. (2020). “Does Merit Matter in America?” The Tech. https://thetech.com/2020/02/20/legacy-privilege. See also Jaschik, S. (2021, March). “Do Top Colleges Favor Applicants Who Are Extremely Wealthy?” Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/admissions/article/2021/03/22/do-top-colleges-favor-applicants-who-are-extremely-wealthy
  14. In this report we generally use the term “level playing field” as we recognize the inherent tension between ‘meritocracy’ and equity, as outlined in Markovits, D. (2019).The Meritocracy Trap, Penguin Press. For a short explanation, see Markovits, D. (2020)  “How Meritocracy Worsens Inequality,” Yale Insights. https://insights.som.yale.edu/insights/how-meritocracy-worsens-inequality-and-makes-even-the-rich-miserable
  15. Qureshi, Z. (2020). “Tackling the Inequality Pandemic: Is There A Cure?” Reimagining the global economy: Building back better in a post-COVID-19 world. Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/research/tackling-the-inequality-pandemic-is-there-a-cure.
  16. The National Forum on Early Childhood Policy and Programs has found that high quality early childhood programs can yield a $4 – $9 dollar return per $1 invested. https://developingchild.harvard.edu/science/related-activities. For more on the benefits of early childhood education, see: van Huizen, T., & Plantenga, J. (2018). “Do children benefit from universal early childhood education and care? A meta-analysis of evidence from natural experiments.” Economics of Education Review, 66, 206–222; Center for High Impact Philanthropy (2015). “Investing in Kids Can Yield High Returns: Q&A with Dr. Lynn A. Karoly.” University of Pennsylvania. https://www.impact.upenn.edu/investing-in-kids-can-yield-high-returns-qa-with-dr-lynn-a-karoly. See Center on the Developing Child (2007). Early Childhood Program Effectiveness (InBrief). www.developingchild.harvard.edu
  17. Friedman-Krauss, A., et al. (2020) “The State of Pre-school 2019.” Rutgers Graduate School of Education. https://nieer.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/YB2019_Executive_Summary.pdf
  18. van Huizen, T., & Plantenga, J. (2018). “Do children benefit from universal early childhood education and care? A meta-analysis of evidence from natural experiments.” Economics of Education Review, 66, 206–222; Center for High Impact Philanthropy (2015). “Investing in Kids Can Yield High Returns: Q&A with Dr. Lynn A. Karoly.” University of Pennsylvania. https://www.impact.upenn.edu/investing-in-kids-can-yield-high-returns-qa-with-dr-lynn-a-karoly/.  See also Center on the Developing Child (2007). Early Childhood Program Effectiveness (InBrief). www.developingchild.harvard.edu.
  19. Bobb, K. (2018). “Systemic Investments In Equity, Talent, and Tech: Findings from a CECP Accelerate Community.” CECP. http://cecp.co/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/cecp_equity-talent_2018_FINAL.pdf?redirect=no.
  20. ACLU (2020). “School-to-prison-pipeline.” [infographic] https://www.aclu.org/issues/juvenile-justice/school-prison-pipeline/school-prison-pipeline-infographic.
  21. Atlanta Public School Insights. (2020). https://apsinsights.org/2020/01/17/2019-milestones-results-by-subgroup/. Data from Georgia Governor's Office of Student Achievement. https://gosa.georgia.gov/dashboards-data-report-card/downloadable-data.
  22. It is important to note, however, that income inequality does not supplant racism as an explanation for racial disparities. Data shows, for example, that “Black boys raised in America, even in the wealthiest families and living in some of the most well-to-do neighborhoods, still earn less in adulthood than white boys with similar backgrounds;” as reported by The New York Times. See Badger, E., Miller, C. C., Pearce, A. & Quealy, K. (2018). “Extensive Data Shows Punishing Reach of Racism for Black Boys.” The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/03/19/upshot/race-class-white-and-black-men.html 
  23. For further information email CSforED@csforall.org or see Delyser, L. A., Goode, J., Guzdial, M., Kafai, Y., & Yadav, A. (2018). Priming the computer science teacher pump: Integrating computer science education into schools of education. CSforAll. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1DXgpLjl_k87TVpQ0cLusfdjnYySIgIjT/view.
  24. Goodman, M. (n.d.). Systems thinking: What, why, when, where, and how. The Systems Thinker. https://thesystemsthinker.com/systems-thinking-what-why-when-where-and-how; see also Kim, D. (1999). Introduction to systems thinking (Vol. 16). Waltham, MA: Pegasus Communications. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/535849dae4b0f67f52ae0568/t/5e42d6fbecf987525cb25dfc/1581438716299/Introduction+to+Systems+Thinking.pdf
  25. Ibid.
  26. Derrick, L. (2019).  “5 Advantages of Systems Thinking and How to Make Full Use of It.” Toggl Plan Blog. https://toggl.com/blog/5-advantages-of-systems-thinking.
  27. Kim, D. (1999). “Introduction to Systems Thinking.” Pegasus Communications, Inc. https://thesystemsthinker.com/introduction-to-systems-thinking
  28. “Systems Practice” - Acumen Academy, supported by Omidyar Group. https://acumenacademy.org/course/systems-practice.
  29. See, e.g., ​​Cruz, A. (2018, October). “The problematic history of the word ‘Hispanic.’” TeenVogue [Op Ed for Latinx Heritage Month]. https://www.teenvogue.com/story/problematic-history-of-hispanic-word.
  30. Noe-Bustamante, L., Mora, L., & Lopez, M. H. (2020). “About One-in-Four U.S. Hispanics Have Heard of Latinx, but Just 3% Use It.” Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2020/08/11/about-one-in-four-u-s-hispanics-have-heard-of-latinx-but-just-3-use-it.
  31. Ashcraft, C., McLain, B., & Eger, E. (2016). “Women in Tech: The Facts.” National Center for Women & Technology (NCWIT). https://ncwit.org/resource/thefacts; Scott, A., et al. (2018). “The Leaky Tech Pipeline: A Comprehensive Framework for Understanding and Addressing the Lack of Diversity across the Tech Ecosystem.” Kapor Center for Social Impact. https://mk0kaporcenter5ld71a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/KC18001_report_v6-1.pdf
  32. Chang, E. (2019). Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys’ Club of Silicon Valley. Portfolio/Penguin. 
  33. Riggins, J. (2021, January). “Why Tech is Still Toxic for Women and What to Do About It.” TheNewStack. https://thenewstack.io/why-tech-is-still-toxic-for-women-and-what-to-do-about-it.
  34. Hong, Y., Mack, M., & Pao, E. (2021, March). “Remote Work Since COVID-19 is Exacerbating Harm: What Companies Need to Know.” Project Include. https://projectinclude.org/assets/pdf/Project_Include_Harassment_Report_0321_R8.pdf.
  35. Basford, T., Schaninger, B. (April 11, 2016). “The Four Building Blocks of Change.” McKinsey Quarterly. https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/organization/our-insights/the-four-building-blocks--of-change.
  36. See Ashcraft, C., McLain, B., & Eger, E. (2016). “Women in Tech: The Facts.” National Center for Women & Technology (NCWIT). https://ncwit.org/resource/thefacts
  37. Bourke, J., & Titus, A. (2020). “The Key to Inclusive Leadership.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/03/the-key-to-inclusive-leadership?registration=success.
  38. See also Paradigm Strategy Inc. (n.d.). “Inclusive Leadership: Unlocking the power of diversity through inclusion.” https://info.paradigmiq.com/hubfs/Inclusive%20Leadership_Paradigm%20White%20Paper.pdf.
  39. For a full explanation of NCWIT’s Inclusive Culture Construction framework, along with its research basis, see ncwit.org/iccframework.
  40. See, for example Harvard Business Review collection. https://hbr.org/2020/06/confronting-racism-at-work-a-reading-list; and Harvard Business School Racial Justice Reading List. https://www.hbs.edu/about/campus-and-culture/standing-together/Pages/racial-justice-reading-list.aspx
  41. 5 Ally Actions Newsletter. https://betterallies.com/more-content.
  42. Ishmael, S. (2021, July 27) Race Ahead Newsletter. Fortune. https://fortune.com/newsletter/raceahead
  43. Created by the DEI strategists and consultants at Paradigm. www.paradigmiq.com.
  44. Paradigm. “Building Effective Allyship is Critical:  Here’s How You Can Start.”  https://www.paradigmiq.com/2020/05/29/building-effective-allyship-skills-is-critical-heres-how-you-can-start.
  45. Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. Random House.; Dweck, C. (2016). “What Having a ‘Growth Mindset’ Actually Means.” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2016/01/what-having-a-growth-mindset-actually-means#
  46. Gerdeman, D. (2021, May 10). “Who has potential? For many white men, it’s often other white men.” Working Knowledge (Harvard Business School). https://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/who-has-potential-for-white-men-its-usually-other-white-men.
  47. HBR Editors. (2014). “How Companies Can Profit from a ‘Growth Mindset.’” Harvard Business Review.  https://hbr.org/2014/11/how-companies-can-profit-from-a-growth-mindset
  48. Carr, P. B., Dweck, C. S., & Pauker, K. (2012, June 18). “‘Prejudiced’ Behavior Without Prejudice? Beliefs About the Malleability of Prejudice Affect Interracial Interactions.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. http://manoa.hawaii.edu/isplab/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Carr-Dweck-Pauker-2012_JPSP.pdf.
  49. Sue, D. W. “Microaggression: More Than Just Race.” https://www.uua.org/files/pdf/m/microaggressions_by_derald_wing_sue_ph.d._.pdf
  50. See Native Governance Center https://nativegov.org/a-guide-to-indigenous-land-acknowledgment and https://native-land.ca/resources/territory-acknowledgement/, and also “Acknowledging Traditional Custodians,” from the University of Virginia https://kluge-ruhe.org/about/acknowledging-indigenous-owners
  51. See https://ncwit.org/blog/building-more-inclusive-cultures-at-work-while-were-at-home.
  52. See https://public.tableau.com/app/profile/anitab/viz/NSF_RAPID_CIRCLE-CT_SURVEY_1_DASHBOARD_2021_v2/CIRCLE-CT
  53. Alon, T., Coskun, S., Doepke, M., Koll, D., & Tertilt, M. (2021). “From Mancession to Shecession: Women's Employment in Regular and Pandemic Recessions.” (No. w28632). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~mdo738/research/ACDKT_0621.pdf
  54. Ashcraft, C., McLain, B., & Eger, E. (2016). “Women in Tech: The Facts.” National Center for Women & Technology (NCWIT). https://ncwit.org/resource/thefacts.
  55. E.g., NCWIT’s Workforce Alliance provides opportunities for learning, peer collaboration, and engagement in communities of practice. https://ncwit.org/about-ncwit/ncwit-alliances/workforce-alliance.
  56. Ashcraft, C., McLain, B., & Eger, E. (2016). “Women in Tech: The Facts.” National Center for Women & Technology (NCWIT). https://ncwit.org/resource/thefacts.
  57. Examples include Emory, Harvard and Stanford; see https://goizueta.emory.edu/executive-education/short-courses/diversity; https://www.hks.harvard.edu/educational-programs/executive-education/strategies-building-and-leading-diverse-organizations-0; and https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/exec-ed/programs/leverage-diversity-inclusion-organizational-excellence.
  58. See https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/about/social-justice.html#~our-actions.
  59. See https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/about/social-justice.html#~our-beliefs.
  60. See https://blogs.cisco.com/news/investing-for-an-inclusive-future.
  61. See https://studentfreedominitiative.org/.
  62. See https://computex.net/. 
  63. Mallick, M. (2020). “Do You Know Why Your Company Needs a CDO?” Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/09/do-you-know-why-your-company-needs-a-chief-diversity-officer.
  64. A protected class refers to an identity group that receives protection, usually against discrimination, under the law. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/protected_class.
  65. Diversity Lab. “Mansfield Rule to boost diversity in leadership.” https://www.diversitylab.com/mansfield-rule-4-0.
  66. DuBois, C. (2016). “The impact of ‘Soft’ Affirmative Action Policies on Minority Hiring in Executive Leadership: The Case of the NFL’s Rooney Rule.” American Law and Economics Review, 18(1), 208–233. https://doi.org/10.1093/aler/ahv019.; Cook, I. (n.d.) “How HR Can Tackle Diversity Using the Rooney Rule.” Clarity. https://www.visier.com/clarity/how-hr-can-tackle-diversity-using-the-rooney-rule.; DuBois, C. (2017). “What the NFL Can Teach Congress About Hiring More Diverse Staffs.” FiveThirtyEight. https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/what-the-nfl-can-teach-congress-about-hiring-more-diverse-staffs.
  67. Ibid.
  68. Justice William J. Brennan, who delivered the Court’s opinion on Steelworkers v. Weber in 1979, stated, “It would be ironic indeed if a law triggered by a Nation's concern over centuries of racial injustice and intended to improve the lot of those who had been excluded from the American dream for so long, constituted the first legislative prohibition of all voluntary, private, race-conscious efforts to abolish traditional patterns of racial segregation and hierarchy.”
  69. Justia (2018). Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Justia.com. https://www.justia.com/employment/employment-discrimination/title-vii.
  70. This is a key argument of Critical Race Theory. 
  71. American Civil Liberties Union (2018). “Inclusion Targets: What’s Legal?” ACLU Fact Sheet. https://www.aclusocal.org/en/inclusion-targets-whats-legal.    
  72. American Bar Association (2021, March). “Race Conscious Hiring Under Title VII.” https://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/events/labor_law/2021/midwinter/err/materials/race-conscious-hiring-under-title-vii.pdf.
  73. In certain instances, an appropriately tailored VAAP may be legally permissible if it upholds the following guidelines: (a) the employer seeks to correct a “manifest imbalance in traditionally segregated job classifications;” (b) the employer’s voluntary affirmative action plan is temporary and remedial in its intent; and (c) The plan does not “unnecessarily trammel” the rights of the majority. See Johnson v. Santa Clara Transportation Agency, 480 U.S. 616 (1987); Steelworkers v. Weber, 443 U.S. 193, 208 (1979). There are specific legal considerations inherent to adopting any such plan, and they may not be an option for some employers.
  74. Schwartz, D. (2020, September). “Developing a Diverse Workforce.” Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP and Affiliates. https://www.skadden.com/insights/publications/2020/09/quarterly-insights/developing-a-diverse-workforce.
  75. Nusbaum, M. (2020, July). “How to Strengthen Your Affirmative Action Policies. HR Daily Advisor. https://hrdailyadvisor.blr.com/2020/07/27/how-to-strengthen-your-affirmative-action-policies/.
  76. Mahaffy, S. (2020, August). “As S&P Companies Rethink D&I Policies, ESG Funds Attract Record Flows.” RBC. https://www.rbccm.com/en/insights/story.page?dcr=templatedata/article/insights/data/2020/08/as_sp_companies_rethink_di_policies_esg_funds_attract_record_flows.
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  80. Intel defines “minority-owned” business as one that is at least 51% owned by, and whose management and daily business operations are controlled by, one or more members of a socially and economically disadvantaged minority group, namely U.S. citizens who are African Americans (Black), Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Pacific Americans, Alaskan Native Americans and Indian Sub-Continent Americans. Definitions vary for certification programs administered by federal, state and local agencies.  
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  90. Implementing strategies to address the root causes identified in this report should have the outcome of increasing representation. Set targets for achieving this outcome but bear in mind that these outcomes measure progress toward inclusive culture; they do not directly indicate goal achievement.
  91. NCWIT offers a suite of research-based tools--the Tech Inclusion Journey Toolkit--to guide companies in assessing DEI maturity, setting goals, developing strategic action plans toward those goals, and measuring progress toward inclusive culture. See https://ncwit.org/program/tech-inclusion-journey.
  92. Inclusion is more difficult to measure and track than diversity, but it is no less important. Numerous researchers and academics are investigating how best to measure inclusion, and new tools are on the horizon. See, e.g., Gaudiano, P. (2019, April 23). “Inclusion Is Invisible: How To Measure It.” Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/paologaudiano/2019/04/23/inclusion-is-invisible-how-to-measure-it; & Gaudiano, P. (2019, April 29). “Inclusion Is Invisible: What You Should Measure.” Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/paologaudiano/2019/04/29/inclusion-is-invisible-what-you-should-measure
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  96. Tips adapted from Pinarchick, C. (2019). “Follow These 7 Steps to an Effective Pay-Equity Audit.” Human Resource Executive. https://hrexecutive.com/follow-these-7-steps-to-an-effective-pay-equity-audit.
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  107. Cusak, D. (2020, Spring). “The Equity Case for Competency-Based Hiring.” Higher Ed Magazine. https://www.cupahr.org/issue/feature/the-equity-case-for-competency-based-hiring
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  113. See https://textio.com/ and http://gender-decoder.katmatfield.com
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  117. The Rooney Rule was implemented by the NFL requiring at least one person of color to be interviewed for open coaching jobs. https://www.nfl.com/news/nfl-instituting-changes-to-rooney-rule
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  119. Diversity Lab. Mansfield Rule 4.0. https://www.diversitylab.com/mansfield-rule-4-0
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  124. See https://www.rebootrepresentation.org.
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  127. See https://www.ebony.com.
  128. See https://latinastyle.com.
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  139. See https://ncwit.org/resource/supervising-in-a-box-series-performance-review-talent-management.
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  152. See https://ncwit.org/resources/top-10-ways-managers-can-increase-the-visibility-of-technical-women.
  153. See https://www.ncwit.org/resources/how-can-companies-promote-innovation-diverse-employees
  154. See https://www.ncwit.org/resources/resources-increasing-participation-and-transparency-patenting.
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  175. See Harvard Kenny School’s Gender Action Portal at https://gap.hks.harvard.edu.
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  179. See https://disabilityin.org/announcements/ceo-letter-on-disability-inclusion
  180. See https://disabilityin.org/what-we-do/disability-equality-index
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  182. See https://disabilityin.org/resources.
  183. E.g., A 2007 FTC investigation found that Black and Hispanic/Latinx individuals were overrepresented in the lowest credit categories. See Federal Trade Commission. (2007). Credit-based insurance scores: Impacts on consumers of automobile insurance, https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/documents/reports/credit-based-insurance-scores-impacts-consumers-automobile-insurance-report-congress-federal-trade/p044804facta_report_credit-based_insurance_scores.pdf. For a brief explanation of how racial credit score disparities are rooted in discriminatory practices, see Singletary, M. (2020, October). Credit scores are supposed to be race-neutral. That’s impossible. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/10/16/how-race-affects-your-credit-score/. 
  184. Example provided by Steven Huang, DEI Consultant (personal communication, 2021).
  185. See https://www.blog.google/outreach-initiatives/diversity/products-work-you-no-matter-who-you-are.
  186. Ian Hosking, Senior Research Associate, Cambridge University Engineering Design Centre, quoted in Harvard Business Review Analytic Services, sponsored by Google. (2021, March). “The Business Case for Product Inclusion Design Practices.” https://hbr.org/sponsored/2021/03/the-business-case-for-product-inclusion-design-practices
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  189. See https://www.a11yproject.com/checklist
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  191. See tips specific to the use in the quick glance at  https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/wcag/glance.
  192. See https://www.ajl.org.
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  195. See https://haas.berkeley.edu/equity/industry/playbooks/mitigating-bias-in-ai
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  198. 21st Century Fox, The Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media, and J. Walter Thompson Intelligence (2018). “The Scully Effect: I want to believe in STEM.” https://seejane.org/research-informs-empowers/the-scully-effect-i-want-to-believe-in-stem
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  200. See https://dei.amazonstudios.com/inclusion-policy.
  201. See https://dei.amazonstudios.com/inclusion-playbook.
  202. CNN recognized the limitations, calling it “a blunt and imperfect measurement tool,” see https://money.cnn.com/2011/11/09/technology/diversity_silicon_valley/index.htm?iid=EL. Read more about the history of the diversity report in tech and CNN’s Freedom of Information Request at https://money.cnn.com/2011/11/09/technology/diversity_silicon_valley/index.htm?iid=EL
  203. “The EEO-1 is a report filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), mandated by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1967, as amended by the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972. The act requires that employers report on the racial/ethnic and gender composition of their workforce by specific job categories” (SHRM - Society of Human Resource Management). See  https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/hr-qa/pages/newfilingrequirements.aspx.
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  205. Research shows that only a systemic approach can move the needle. See Kapor Center: The Leaky Tech Pipeline. https://leakytechpipeline.com.
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  225. Crenshaw, K. (1989). “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics.” University of Chicago Legal Forum 1989 (8), 139-167. https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/uclf/vol1989/iss1/8.
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  232. Jurisdictions outside the U.S. may place different restrictions on what kind of data can be collected, e.g., GDPR regulations in the E.U.  
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  253. For example see Multiverse, an organization seeking to disrupt the university model by providing opportunity and high quality apprenticeships to underrepresented groups who are not going to university. https://www.multiverse.io/en-US
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  262. See https://ecepalliance.org/summit-toolkit.
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  273. See http://www.lastmile-ed.org.
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  281. See https://www.zipcodewilmington.com
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  292. Independently produced by TEAM but informed by direct consultation with diverse industry and community stakeholders.
  293. BSR™ is an organization of sustainable business experts that works with its global network of the world’s leading companies to build a just and sustainable world. https://www.bsr.org/en.
  294. Othering & Belonging Institute, University of California Berkeley. https://belonging.berkeley.edu.
  295. See https://blacklivesmatter.com.
  296. See https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diversity.
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  302. See https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/inclusion.
  303. Ries, E. (2011). “The lean startup: How today's entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses.” Crown Business. 
  304. See https://www.aspeninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/files/content/docs/rcc/RCC-Structural-Racism-Glossary.pdf; https://knowledge.insead.edu/blog/insead-blog/unearthing-the-roots-of-systemic-racism-14701; and https://belonging.berkeley.edu/roots-structural-racism.

Share DEI data, metrics, and goals

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Transform pathways into tech for under-represented talent

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GENERAL

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